World DNA Day is celebrated! All the information of living creatures …


April 25, World DNA Day was first celebrated in 2003 by the US National Human Genome Research Institute. With the day determined for the publication of James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin and their friends on DNA structure published in Nature magazine on April 25, 1953, it is aimed to spread what is known about DNA and the science of genetics to the masses. Yeditepe University Genetics and Bioengineering Department Head Prof. Dr. Fikrettin Şahin gave important information about 25 April World DNA Day and DNA research.

FROM DISEASE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT TO LEGAL SOLUTIONS

Stating that all the information about the organism is stored in DNA, Prof. Dr. Fikrettin Şahin, “In order to find the answers of the organism, we need to be able to read and interpret the information here. With each new discovery in DNA, we get closer to the source of the information. DNA is nowadays disease diagnosis and treatment, the use of genetic manipulation technologies in research and development, and genetically modified organisms are “It is very important for biodefense, judicial and legal solution processes.”

“TECHNOLOGIES LIKE PCR DISCOVERED”

Reminding that new technologies have been discovered as a result of the studies on DNA, Prof. Dr. Fikrettin Şahin said the following:

“The structure of DNA, its physicochemical and biochemical properties were a hot topic of research in the previous century, and these research later led to the discovery of many groundbreaking technologies such as PCR, which we use in almost every field today. These studies brought a wide range of exciting new findings, such as sequencing relatively small organisms such as bacteria, viruses, then the human genome, and then the genetic causes of different diseases, natural gene resources. In this sense, bioinformatics, which examines all biological data including DNA, paves the way for data banks, digital DNA researchers and technology developers in different fields. stands out as n supplies. “

FROM FERTILITY TREATMENT TO SLOWING AGING ….

Noting that gene therapies are used effectively in the treatment of single gene diseases today, Prof. Dr. “With the use of DNA technology in prenatal genetic diagnosis, it is possible to detect diseases in the mother’s womb. As a result of the researches carried out in the field of genetic engineering, it is predicted that more effective and correct methods and tools can be developed to make target-specific changes on human DNA in the future. It will be possible to treat many diseases that cannot be cured today. Some problems related to infertility, whose genetic mechanisms are not fully understood, can be eliminated. The transmission of many hereditary diseases between generations can be prevented. “Treatment methods can be developed. If possible, stopping the aging, if not slowing it down, important developments are expected” he said.

“IT WILL MAKE SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTIONS ON HUMAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT”

Drawing attention to the importance of DNA in cancer treatment, Prof. Dr. “In the field of neurodegenerative, autoimmune, allergy diseases and regenerative medicine, unique biotech drugs, especially cellular and gene therapy products and protocols can be developed. It may be possible to develop fast and effective smart molecules, formulations and vaccines in the treatment of epidemics. In the field of organoid, spare organ production and pharmacogenetics. There may be new expansions. Especially personalized drugs and treatment methods can be developed without side effects. Changes made on the genome using genetic engineering methods are not limited to humans. Especially, changes made in the genome of microorganisms, plants, foods and animals will have important contributions to human and environmental health in the future. said.

Stating that with the developments in the field of agricultural biotechnology, it will be possible for producers to produce more animal and herbal products in a shorter time, Şahin said, “In the future, while the parameters of yield and quality (such as taste, taste, aroma) increase in agricultural products, we can reduce prices and thus create a more accessible food chain.” he spoke.

WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF A CHANGE IN GENETIC STRUCTURE?

Drawing attention to the fact that changes made in the genome of living things with genetic engineering methods will not always have beneficial results, Şahin said, “Sometimes it carries unpredictable risks. In terms of human and environmental health of some genetically modified agent (viruses) and / or living (microorganisms, plants and animals) species. The release of such mutant species due to accident or unknown reasons may cause unpredictable ecological and biological problems in the future.Some changes in the genome of plants and animals can cause unpredictable allergic reactions in some people that do not occur in their original form. genetic changes can make GMO organisms or products toxic to some living species, “he said.

THE ETHICS OF DNA INFORMATION

Touching on the relationship between DNA, genetic information and ethics, Prof. Dr. Fikrettin Şahin said:

“It is a topic that has been discussed for a long time and the field of bioethics education has become very important in this field. First of all, in a more practical perspective, DNA and ethics issue is evaluated for an intervention or treatment of the relevant creature (human, experimental animal, plant) rather than the ethics of the DNA molecule. In this context, the relationship between technologies such as gene therapy, which promises to change DNA, and ethical values ​​are mentioned. In addition, the ethics of DNA information is one of the other topics discussed. These ‘refined’ organisms may begin to take place in our daily lives in the not far away future. DNA and ethics are other topics that await us, such as the origin of synthetic DNA, and the rights / conditions of use. “

“EDUCATION SHOULD BE GIVEN AT A LITTLE AGE”

Explaining that awareness training in the field of DNA should begin at an early age, Prof. Dr. Fikrettin Şahin said, “The series of children’s books written and published in our language in this field should be supported and children should meet scientific processes and questions at a young age through these books. In addition to providing theoretical knowledge in the science of genetics, practical education is the main role. he said.