Biomass and hydrogen are expected to replace petroleum and natural gas used as energy and raw materials in heavy industries, which require large capital and are accepted as one of the indicators of the development level of countries, and there is an increase in studies for this throughout the world.
At the end of last year, nearly 20 countries developed support policies for the use of hydrogen in the energy sector. These countries aim to provide the energy required for the production and operation of chemicals, petrochemicals, iron, steel and other mines from sustainable and clean sources.
According to the information compiled by the AA correspondent from the 2021 Renewable Energy Global Status Report of the 21st Century Renewable Energy Policy Organization (REN21), it is predicted that biomass, which is in the renewable energy class, can replace oil and natural gas in this sector, while it is renewable in heavy industry where high temperatures are needed. It is emphasized that hydrogen can be the driving force.
According to the report, 90 percent of the heat energy production from renewable sources last year was obtained by processing the biomass in the fields, and it is stated that this potential can be utilized in the energy-intensive industries of chemistry, petrochemistry, iron and steel, cement and lime.
Oil, natural gas and coal used in heavy industry enable the temperatures of close to 1000 degrees Celsius to be reached in these businesses. Hydrogen alternative has an important place in the search for global solutions to overcome the severe environmental problems caused by these fuels.
While small and medium-sized hydrogen projects are being developed globally, efforts to use these projects in heavy industry, energy and transportation sectors have increased.
“Hydrogen” solution to heavy industry carbon dioxide emissions
While the chemical and petrochemical industry is one of the sectors that use the most energy, these sectors are considered to be responsible for 5 percent of energy-based carbon dioxide production globally.
While the iron and steel industry is responsible for more than 8 percent of global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, efforts are underway for a radical change in energy use in this sector, which causes the most emissions among heavy industry areas.
While Sweden aims to reduce fossil resource pressure in the iron and steel industry by using green hydrogen, it is aimed to use hydrogen and other clean resources instead of coal in this area.
A start-up operating in Sweden aims to provide steel production from clean sources by making the world’s largest hydrogen electrolysis investment. The facility is scheduled to be commissioned in 2024.
Germany’s largest steelmaker, Thyssenkrupp, has also taken an important step in the use of hydrogen in heavy industry by announcing that renewable hydrogen will be used in its production chain by 2025.
In the cement and lime industry, which is responsible for 6.7 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions, although the source of emission is not energy, it is aimed to increase clean and sustainable resources in energy use in this field.
Hydrogen studies in Turkey
It is aimed to form Turkey’s hydrogen strategy by taking the opinions of sector representatives and public opinion in Turkey this year.
An important step was taken in the field of hydrogen by opening the GAZBIR-GAZMER Clean Energy Technology Center, which was designed for the first time in April to mix natural gas and hydrogen and use it in domestic appliances.
In addition, natural gas distribution companies, cement and fertilizer manufacturers, companies working in the energy sector, especially refineries and iron and steel industry in the country, are working on the use of hydrogen.
The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources aims to obtain hydrogen for 4 main gains. These aims are to include more renewable energy in the system, to make the heat sector carbon-free, to produce hydrogen from domestic coal and to increase the use of boron as a hydrogen storage and scavenger.